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batatas haplotypes, except for accession K300-5 (sharing its haplotype with most of I. trifida accessions). It ought to also be noted that I. batatas haplotypes are distributed on two distinct branches in the tree (Figure 3a and S2).as well as the genetic distinction in between L–or any subcellular element, like the nucleus–we Southern and Northern genepools is not clearly identifiable with this representation. For the DAPC clustering analysis (Figure four), the appropriate number of clusters was 5. This grouping also rather well reflects species boundaries: I. trifida accessions are represented by cluster K4 and I. triloba accessions by cluster K5. I. batatas accessions had been linked to three unique clusters, K1, K2 and K3. Some Ipomoea sp. were attributed to I. trifida cluster (K4) and other folks for the I. batatas cluster (K1 and K3; Figure 4). Most of the I. batatas accessions from the Southern region (48/56) had been grouped in cluster K1 (with 1 Ipomoea sp. from Ecuador as well as some I. batatas from the Northern area (5/83)). I. batatas accessions in the Northern area have been subdivided in two clusters, cluster K2 like a large a part of these Northern accessions (50/83) and cluster K3 which includes some accessions in the Northern region (19/83) and a few Ipomoea sp. (23/42). With all the model-based clustering evaluation (STRUCTURE, Figure S3), the optimal number of clusters to describe the information was unclear. Consequently, clustering benefits have been much less informative (taxon boundaries were not clearly identifiable and several people had a mixed genetic constitution; Figure S2). The most effective Bayesian grouping to become compared with DAPC results was obtained for K = 6, a clustering answer which distinguished cultivated I. batatas accessions from wild relatives, as well as separated varieties from the Northern and Southern region (Figure S3).Congruence in between cpDNA haplotype groups and nuclear SSR genetic structureBoth types of markers identified diploid I. trifida and I. triloba as two distinct and uniform genetic groups (Figure 5 and Table 2). Regarding I. batatas, we did not sequence each of the 139 varieties for the rpl32-trnL(UAG) marker. Hence, we utilized cpDNA lineage details from Roullier et al.  to finish our dataset. As described in Roullier et al. , i) nuclear markers reflect a stronger phylogeographic signal than chloroplast markers but ii) phylogeographic patterns revealed by both sets of data had been globally congruent. Certainly, Southern varieties were mainly related to chloroplast lineage 1 and nuclear cluster 1 (39/54 in total). Inside the Northern area, each signals have been also congruent given that 43/84 sweet potato accessions were related to nuclear clusters K2 and K3 and chloroplast lineage 2. Nevertheless, 23 Northern varieties have been related to nuclear clusters K2 and K3, however carried a chloroplast lineage1 haplotype. Ipomoea sp. specimens that grouped using the I. trifida cluster K2 harbored the Northern chloroplast haplotype (or the unclassified uncommon haplotype 1) and had been all located within the Southern area (Ecuador and South Colombia). These in the Northern area carried the Northern chloroplast haplotype and were grouped with nuclear cluster K3 (Figure five and Table two).Interspecific relationships as inferred from SSR markersSSRs may be amplified for all loci and all species, major to a total of 137 alleles.