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batatas haplotypes, except for accession K300-5 (sharing its haplotype with the majority of I. trifida accessions). It should also be noted that I. batatas haplotypes are distributed on two distinct branches in the tree (Figure 3a and S2).and also the genetic distinction between Southern and Northern genepools just isn’t clearly identifiable with this representation. For the DAPC clustering evaluation (Figure four), the suitable number of clusters was five. This grouping also really well reflects species boundaries: I. trifida accessions are represented by cluster K4 and I. triloba accessions by cluster K5. I. batatas accessions were related to three distinctive clusters, K1, K2 and K3. Some Ipomoea sp. were attributed to I. trifida cluster (K4) and other individuals for the I. batatas cluster (K1 and K3; Figure 4). Most of the I. batatas accessions in the Southern region (48/56) had been grouped in cluster K1 (with one Ipomoea sp. from Ecuador as well as some I. batatas in the Northern region (5/83)). I. batatas accessions in the Northern region were subdivided in two clusters, cluster K2 such as a large a part of these Northern accessions (50/83) and cluster K3 including some accessions from the Northern area (19/83) and some Ipomoea sp. (23/42). With all the model-based clustering analysis (STRUCTURE, Figure S3), the optimal number of clusters to describe the data was unclear. Consequently, clustering outcomes have been less informative (taxon boundaries were not clearly identifiable and a lot of folks had a mixed genetic constitution; Figure S2). The very best Bayesian grouping to be compared with DAPC benefits was obtained for K = six, a clustering RP 35972 dose resolution which distinguished cultivated I. batatas accessions from wild relatives, and also separated varieties from the Northern and Southern region (Figure S3).Congruence in between cpDNA haplotype groups and nuclear SSR genetic structureBoth kinds of markers identified diploid I. trifida and I. triloba as two distinct and uniform genetic groups (Figure 5 and Table 2). Concerning I. batatas, we didn’t sequence all the 139 varieties for the rpl32-trnL(UAG) marker. Thus, we employed cpDNA lineage info from Roullier et al.  to complete our dataset. As described in Roullier et al. , i) nuclear markers reflect a stronger phylogeographic signal than chloroplast markers but ii) phylogeographic patterns revealed by both sets of information were globally congruent. Certainly, Southern varieties have been mainly associated to chloroplast lineage 1 and nuclear cluster 1 (39/54 in total). Within the Northern region, both signals had been also congruent considering that 43/84 sweet potato accessions were related to nuclear clusters K2 and K3 and chloroplast lineage 2. However, 23 Northern varieties had been connected to nuclear clusters K2 and K3, but carried a chloroplast lineage1 haplotype. Ipomoea sp. specimens that grouped with all the I. trifida cluster K2 harbored the Northern chloroplast haplotype (or the unclassified uncommon haplotype 1) and had been all positioned in the Southern area (Ecuador and South Colombia). Those from the Northern region carried the Northern chloroplast haplotype and had been grouped with nuclear cluster K3 (Figure 5 and Table two).Interspecific relationships as inferred from SSR markersSSRs could possibly be amplified for all loci and all species, major to a total of 137 alleles.